Towards a Renewed Transatlantic Partnership
- The United States and the European Union represent 780 million people who share democratic values and the largest economic relationship in the world. We have a chance and a responsibility to help people make a living and keep them safe and secure, fight climate change, and stand up for democracy and human rights. We laid the foundations of the world economy and the rules-based international order after World War II based on openness, fair competition, transparency, and accountability. Some of the rules need an update: to protect our health, our climate and planet, to ensure democracy delivers and technology improves our lives.
- We, the leaders of the European Union and the United States, met today to renew our Transatlantic partnership, set a Joint Transatlantic Agenda for the post-pandemic era, and commit to regular dialogue to take stock of progress.
- Together, we intend to: (i) end the COVID-19 pandemic, prepare for future global health challenges, and drive forward a sustainable global recovery; (ii) protect our planet and foster green growth; (iii) strengthen trade, investment, and technological cooperation; and (iv) build a more democratic, peaceful, and secure world. We are committed to uphold the rules-based international order with the United Nations at its core, reinvigorate and reform multilateral institutions where needed, and cooperate with all those who share these objectives.
I. End the COVID-19 pandemic, prepare for future global health challenges, and drive forward a sustainable global recovery
- Ending the COVID-19 pandemic through global cooperation is our first priority. We promote equitable and affordable access and delivery of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines, diagnostics, and therapeutics through the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator. We commit to continuing to support the COVAX Facility and encourage more donors to make 2 billion vaccine doses available worldwide by late 2021. We aspire to vaccinate at least two thirds of the world’s population by the end of 2022.
- A Joint U.S.-EU COVID Manufacturing and Supply Chain Taskforce has been established to deepen cooperation and identify and resolve issues around expanding vaccine and therapeutics production capacity, including by building new production facilities, maintaining open and secure supply chains, avoiding any unnecessary export restrictions, and encouraging voluntary sharing of know-how and technology on mutually-determined terms including through the ACT-A. We are committed to strengthen global health security, pandemic preparedness, and response to health emergencies and future outbreaks. We plan to leverage our strengths to help countries build the capacities to prevent, detect, and respond to infectious disease threats. We intend to work together with like-minded countries this year to explore options towards sustainable global health and health security financing, supported by strengthened global accountability, tracking and allocation of global health security financing, including the Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response (IPPPR) recommendation toward a Global Health Threats Council.
- We resolve to reinforce cooperation to reform the World Health Organization (WHO), including advancing sustainable financing and improving its internal operations. We welcome the “Rome Declaration” principles endorsed at the G20 Global Health Summit and the outcomes of the World Health Assembly, including the establishment of a Working Group on Strengthening WHO Preparedness and Response to Health Emergencies that will prioritize the assessment of the benefits of developing a WHO convention, agreement, or other international instrument on pandemic preparedness and response and provide a report to be considered at the special session of the Health Assembly in November 2021. We will continue to engage in health research initiatives, including to develop medical countermeasures in a much shorter period of time, to support the regional surge capacity to produce them, and to facilitate trade in essential medical goods. We call for progress on a transparent, evidence-based, and expert-led WHO-convened phase 2 study on the origins of COVID-19, that is free from interference, and we commit to working together toward the development and use of a swift and independent means for investigating such outbreaks in the future.
- We welcome G7 discussions to build back better for the world—orienting development finance tools toward the range of challenges faced by developing countries, including in resilient infrastructure and technologies, addressing the impact of climate change, health systems and security, developing digital solutions, and advancing gender equality and education. We intend to jointly drive forward a sustainable and inclusive global recovery, in line with the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development that leaves no one behind and prioritizes the most vulnerable and marginalized, protects our climate and planet, protects human rights, empowers women and girls and creates decent jobs. We will enhance our cooperation on sustainable connectivity and high-quality infrastructure. We intend to continue providing assistance to countries in need, address debt vulnerabilities, and stimulate domestic reforms and increased private investment. To address the problem of unsustainable debts faced by many countries in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, we plan to promote the swift and transparent implementation of the G20 Common Framework for debt treatment and explore innovative instruments such as debt swaps. Recognizing the increase in food insecurity and malnutrition projected, including as a result of the pandemic, we commit to building resilient food systems.
- We resolve to support efforts to ensure safe and secure global mobility. We will establish a joint U.S.-EU Experts’ Working Group to exchange information and expertise to reinitiate safe and sustainable travel between the EU and the United States. We welcome progress made by the United States and the EU toward additional EU member states meeting the requirements necessary for visa-free travel to the United States and intend to continue our dialogue towards visa waiver travel.
II. Protect our planet and foster green growth
- Climate change, environmental degradation, and the loss of biodiversity are mutually-reinforcing, extraordinary threats to humanity. We plan to continue and strengthen our cooperation to tackle climate change, environmental degradation and the loss of biodiversity, promote green growth, protect our oceans, and urge ambitious action by all other major players.
- We are committed to the Paris Agreement and its effective and strengthened implementation. To provide an effective platform for cooperation in this regard, we commit to establish a U.S.-EU High-Level Climate Action Group. We intend to lead by example through becoming net zero greenhouse gases (GHG) economies no later than 2050 and implementing our respective enhanced 2030 targets / Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). We resolve to engage our international partners to achieve an ambitious outcome at the 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26), making every effort to keep a 1.5 degree Celsius limit on global temperature within reach. We intend to closely coordinate to promote robust climate measures, address the risk of carbon leakage, and cooperate on sustainable finance, including by providing the private sector with usable tools and metrics.
- We are determined to accelerate a climate-neutral future and ensure a just transition that leaves no one behind, including through low greenhouse gas emission technologies, an increasing uptake of renewable energies, a stronger engagement to promote clean energy innovation in Mission Innovation, increased energy efficiency and methane emissions reduction, sustainable food systems, including climate-smart agricultural systems, and sustainable and smart mobility. We commit to rapidly scaling up technologies and policies that further accelerate the transition away from unabated coal capacity and to an overwhelmingly decarbonized power system in the 2030s, consistent with our respective 2030 NDCs and 2050 net zero commitments. The U.S.-EU Energy Council will continue to lead coordination on strategic energy issues, including decarbonization of the energy sector, energy security, and sustainable energy supply chains. We resolve to increase our cooperation on transition towards a climate-neutral, resource-efficient and circular economy. In this context, we intend to work towards a Transatlantic Green Technology Alliance that would foster cooperation on the development and deployment of green technologies, as well as promote markets to scale such technologies.
- We intend to continue to scale up efforts to meet the USD 100 billion per year climate finance goal through to 2025, in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation from public and private sources, as well as to continue to scale up finance contributing to climate adaptation action. In order to fulfill the objectives of the Paris Agreement, we stress that international investments in unabated coal must stop now and call for global efforts to phase out unabated coal in energy production. We resolve to take concrete steps towards an absolute end to new direct government support for unabated international thermal coal power generation in third countries by the end of 2021, including through Official Development Assistance, export finance, investment, and financial and trade promotion support. We commit to reviewing our official trade, export, and development finance policies towards these objectives.
- We are strongly determined to halt and reverse biodiversity loss by 2030 and take urgent action to address its drivers. In this context, we are committed to the goal of conserving or protecting at least 30 percent of the global land and 30 percent of the global oceans by 2030. We commit to contribute to this goal by conserving or protecting at least 30 percent of our own land, including terrestrial and inland waters, and coastal and marine areas by 2030 according to national circumstances and approaches. We plan to actively restore nature for the benefit of the health and well-being of our citizens, and step up our cooperation on deforestation and wildlife trafficking. We encourage others to make similar commitments to support efforts that benefit both climate and biodiversity, and protect our oceans. We plan to jointly promote a successful and ambitious post-2020 global biodiversity framework at the 15th UN Biodiversity Conference of the Parties (COP15). We also encourage partners to join multilateral efforts at the UN Environment Assembly to consider next steps at the global level to tackle plastics pollution.
- We commit to working together to protect our oceans, including by combatting marine litter. We resolve to support the designation of new marine protected areas in the Southern Ocean, and continue cooperating for the purpose of the sustainable blue economy, sustainable fishing, prevention of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing, and research through the All-Atlantic Ocean Research alliance. We will also plan to work together at the next UN Ocean Conference and at the intergovernmental conference on Marine Biodiversity beyond National Jurisdiction.
III. Strengthen trade, investment, and technological cooperation
- We commit to grow the U.S.-EU trade and investment relationship as well as to uphold and reform the rules-based multilateral trading system. We intend to use trade to help fight climate change, protect the environment, promote workers’ rights, expand resilient and sustainable supply chains, continue to cooperate in emerging technologies, and create decent jobs. We resolve to stand together to protect our businesses and workers from unfair trade practices, in particular those posed by non-market economies that are undermining the world trading system.
- We resolve to drive digital transformation that spurs trade and investment, strengthens our technological and industrial leadership, boosts innovation, and protects and promotes critical and emerging technologies and infrastructure. We plan to cooperate on the development and deployment of new technologies based on our shared democratic values, including respect for human rights, and that encourages compatible standards and regulations.
- To kick-start this positive agenda and to provide an effective platform for cooperation, we establish a high-level U.S.-EU Trade and Technology Council (TTC). The major goals of the TTC will be to grow the bilateral trade and investment relationship; to avoid new unnecessary technical barriers to trade; to coordinate, seek common ground, and strengthen global cooperation on technology, digital issues, and supply chains; to support collaborative research and exchanges; to cooperate on compatible and international standards development; to facilitate regulatory policy and enforcement cooperation and, where possible, convergence; to promote innovation and leadership by U.S. and European firms; and to strengthen other areas of cooperation. The cooperation and exchanges of the TTC will be without prejudice to the regulatory autonomy of the United States and the European Union and will respect the different legal systems in both jurisdictions. Cooperation within the TTC will also feed into coordination in multilateral bodies and wider efforts with like-minded partners, with the aim of promoting a democratic model of digital governance.
- The TTC will initially include working groups with agendas focused on technology standards cooperation (including on AI, Internet of Things, among other emerging technologies), climate and green tech, ICT security and competitiveness, data governance and technology platforms, the misuse of technology threatening security and human rights, export controls, investment screening, promoting SMEs access to, and use of, digital technologies, and global trade challenges. It will also include a working group on reviewing and strengthening our most critical supply chains. Notably, we commit to building a U.S.-EU partnership on the rebalancing of global supply chains in semiconductors with a view to enhancing U.S. and EU respective security of supply as well as capacity to design and produce the most powerful and resource efficient semiconductors.
- In parallel with the TTC, we intend to establish a U.S.-EU Joint Technology Competition Policy Dialogue that would focus on approaches to competition policy and enforcement, and increased cooperation in the tech sector. To support collaborative research and innovation exchanges, we promote a staff exchange program between our research funding agencies, and we intend to explore the possibility of developing a new research initiative on biotechnology and genomics, with a view to setting common standards. A new implementing arrangement between the EU Joint Research Centre and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technologies aims to expand cooperation to new areas. We also resolve to deepen cooperation on cybersecurity information sharing and situational awareness, as well as cybersecurity certification of products and software.
- We commit to work together to ensure safe, secure, and trusted cross-border data flows that protect consumers and enhance privacy protections, while enabling Transatlantic commerce. To this end, we plan to continue to work together to strengthen legal certainty in Transatlantic flows of personal data. We also commit to continue cooperation on consumer protection and access to electronic evidence in criminal matters.
- We salute having reached an Understanding on a Cooperative Framework for Large Civil Aircraft, reflecting a new transatlantic relationship in this area. We are committed to make this framework work to promote a level playing field, overcome long-standing differences, avoid future litigation, and more effectively address the challenge posed by non-market economies. We will engage in discussions to allow the resolution of existing differences on measures regarding steel and aluminum before the end of the year. In this regard, we are determined to work together to resolve tensions arising from the U.S. application of tariffs on imports from the EU under U.S. Section 232, and will work towards allowing trade to recover from its 2020 lows and ending the WTO disputes. We commit to ensure the long-term viability of our steel and aluminum industries, and to address excess capacity. We are determined to foster a fair, sustainable, and modern international tax system and cooperate to reach a global consensus on the question of taxation of multinational companies through the G20/OECD Inclusive Framework and look forward to reaching an agreement at the July meeting of G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors.
- We intend to work cooperatively on efforts to achieve meaningful World Trade Organization (WTO) reform and help promote outcomes that benefit our workers and companies. We commit to work together to advance the proper functioning of the WTO’s negotiating function and dispute settlement system, which requires addressing long-standing issues. Plurilateral mechanisms can provide a means for addressing new trade concerns when multilateral solutions are not possible. We plan to continue to cooperate on special and differential treatment, and on our joint transparency proposal. We intend to seek to update the WTO rulebook with more effective disciplines on industrial subsidies, unfair behavior of state-owned enterprises, and other trade and market distorting practices. We intend to work closely together, and with the wider support of the Membership of the WTO, to conclude a meaningful agreement on fisheries subsidies, and to a trade policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic that facilitates expansion of production and equitable access to vaccines, and to work towards a WTO Ministerial later this year that contributes to a more effective and modernized rules-based trading system.
- We commit to strengthen our cooperation on space by building on the Galileo – GPS Agreement. This could include making progress on access to Galileo’s Public Regulated Service signal, engaging on space-based Earth observation to support climate policies, for instance by monitoring CO2 levels and emergency services, as well as exchanging on our respective approaches on space traffic management.
IV. Build a more democratic, peaceful and secure world
- Together, the European Union and the United States are an anchor for democracy, peace, and security around the world, to peacefully prevent and resolve conflicts, uphold the rule of law and international law, and promote human rights for all, gender equity and equality, and the empowerment of women and girls, including by working together through multilateral institutions including the UN Human Rights Council. Together, we resolve to address humanitarian needs and stand up for international humanitarian law as well as expand the resource base for humanitarian action. We reject authoritarianism in all its forms around the globe, resisting autocrats’ efforts to create an environment that protects their rule and serves their interests, while undermining liberal democracies. We intend to enhance cooperation on the use of sanctions to pursue shared foreign policy and security objectives, while avoiding possible unintended consequences for European and U.S. interests. In this respect, we resolve to continue to engage on issues on which we might have different approaches.
- We intend to support democracy across the globe by defending media freedom; advancing a free and open internet; fostering responsible behavior in cyberspace; upholding transparency and combatting corruption in financial systems, politics, and the economy; tackling disinformation; protecting civil society and civic space; advancing women’s political participation and empowerment; and protecting the human rights of all people. We resolve to lead by example at home. We intend to partner in the Summit for Democracy, committing to concrete actions to defend universal human rights, prevent democratic backsliding, and fight corruption. We plan to increase cooperation and exchange information and expertise to increase resilience against and to counter foreign information manipulation and interference, all forms of coercion including economic pressure, hybrid threats, malicious cyber activities, terrorism and violent extremism, and other common security threats. We resolve to support the ability of civil society and independent media to operate freely, and to protect and defend journalists in order to hold governments accountable.
- We intend to closely consult and cooperate on the full range of issues in the framework of our respective similar multi-faceted approaches to China, which include elements of cooperation, competition, and systemic rivalry. We intend to continue coordinating on our shared concerns, including ongoing human rights violations in Xinjiang and Tibet; the erosion of autonomy and democratic processes in Hong Kong; economic coercion; disinformation campaigns; and regional security issues. We remain seriously concerned about the situation in the East and South China Seas and strongly oppose any unilateral attempts to change the status quo and increase tensions. We reaffirm the critical importance of respecting international law, in particular the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) noting its provisions setting forth the lawful maritime entitlements of States, on maritime delimitation, on the sovereign rights and jurisdictions of States, on the obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means, and on the freedom of navigation and overflight and other internationally lawful uses of the sea. We underscore the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, and encourage the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues. We intend also to coordinate on our constructive engagement with China on issues such as climate change and non-proliferation, and on certain regional issues.
- We stand united in our principled approach towards Russia and we are ready to respond decisively to its repeating pattern of negative behavior and harmful activities, which Russia must address to prevent the further deterioration of relations including on the list of so-called unfriendly states.To coordinate our policies and actions, we plan to establish a U.S.-EU high-level dialogue on Russia. We condemn Russia’s continued actions to undermine Ukraine’s and Georgia’s sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence. We call on Russia to ensure foreign diplomatic missions in Russia can operate in a safe, secure, and productive fashion. We urge Russia to stop its continuous crackdown on civil society, the opposition, and independent media, and release all political prisoners. At the same time, we keep channels of communication open and possibilities for selective cooperation in areas of common interest. We also commit to work together to address the urgent and escalating threat from criminal ransomware networks that pose risks to our citizens and companies.
- We are determined to continue to stand in support of the sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity of the EU’s Eastern partners and will support the reform path of Ukraine, Georgia, and the Republic of Moldova. We resolve to work towards long-term peace, resilience, and stability in the South Caucasus. We stand with the people of Belarus and their demands for human rights and democracy. We resolve to hold the Lukashenka regime to account for its escalating attacks on human rights and fundamental freedoms and for endangering aviation safety through the unprecedented and unacceptable forced diversion of an EU passenger airplane under false pretenses, and the subsequent arrest of a journalist as part of a continuing assault on opposition voices and the freedom of the press.
- We intend to further strengthen our joint engagement in the Western Balkans, including through the EU-facilitated dialogue between Belgrade and Pristina on normalization of their relations, and by supporting key reforms for EU integration. We resolve to work hand-in-hand for sustainable de-escalation in the Eastern Mediterranean, where differences should be settled through dialogue in good faith and in accordance with international law. We aim for a cooperative and mutually beneficial relationship with a democratic Turkey. We plan to join efforts for a stable and secure Middle East and North Africa. The European Union and the United States welcome the ceasefire in the conflict in the Middle East and reaffirm the need for Israelis and Palestinians to enjoy equal measures of freedom, security, prosperity, and democracy on the basis of a two-State solution. In light of the growing humanitarian needs across Syria and the COVID 19 pandemic, we call on the UN Security Council to ensure that humanitarian aid can reach all people in need in Syria, including through cross border and cross line operations. We also regret the recent illegitimate elections in Syria and call on the international community to hold the Assad regime accountable for its brutal crimes and to work together to advance a political resolution to the conflict in line with UNSC resolution 2254. We reaffirm our commitment to support Libya in its path towards peace, security, and stability, and to work with parties in Yemen to agree to the UN’s proposal for an immediate ceasefire.
- We are committed to peace and sustainable development in Africa. The political, human rights, security, and humanitarian situation in Ethiopia, Somalia, and the Sahel countries is of grave concern. We share deep concerns about the growing political and ethnic polarization throughout Ethiopia that threatens the country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. We condemn ongoing atrocities, including widespread sexual violence, and we welcome the ongoing OHCHR investigations and call for full accountability for reported human rights violations in Tigray and for the perpetrators to be brought to justice. We also call for the withdrawal of foreign forces, and unimpeded humanitarian access. Following the Summit on financing African economies, we plan to act together with our African partners to ensure equitable access to safe and effective vaccines, and to provide financial support towards a sustainable recovery. We are determined to significantly amplify, on a voluntary basis, the impact of the proposed general allocation of Special Drawing Rights by the IMF for Africa.
- We intend to work together with our partners for a free and open Indo-Pacific, which is inclusive, based on the rule of law and democratic values, and will contribute to the security and sustainable development of the region. We intend to work together to promote a swift return to democracy in Burma. In view of the withdrawal of international troops from Afghanistan, we intend to work closely to support the ongoing peace process and sustain regional stability and protect human rights gains, in particular for women and girls.
- We further commit to strengthen our cooperation with the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean to support socio-economic recovery, address economic vulnerability, and push for stronger democratic governance, including supporting a negotiated outcome that leads to free and fair elections in Venezuela.
- We resolve to work together to retain the Arctic as a region of peace and stability and collaborate, in particular through the Arctic Council, to ensure a clean habitat and constructive cooperation on climate change, environmental protection, and sustainable economic development benefiting the region’s inhabitants.
- We resolve to work together to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and renew global arms control efforts. We emphasize our support for the ongoing diplomatic efforts and negotiations in Vienna aimed at facilitating the return of the United States to the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) as well as the full and effective implementation of the deal by Iran and the United States. We share serious concerns about steps taken by Iran, which are inconsistent with the JCPOA. The European Union and the United States recognize that, alongside the return to full and effective implementation by Iran of its nuclear related commitments, the lifting of sanctions constitutes an essential part of the JCPOA. The JCPOA remains critical to ensuring the exclusively peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear program and to upholding the global nuclear non-proliferation architecture.
- We resolve to revive dialogue on migration and mobility, including innovative solutions on effective and safe migration policy in cooperation with third countries, including via the U.S.-EU Platform on Migration and Asylum.
- We welcome the EU’s invitation to the United States to join the PESCO project Military Mobility as an important step towards closer U.S.-EU partnership in security and defense. We recognize the contribution EU security and defense initiatives can make to both European and Transatlantic security and plan to launch a dedicated dialogue on security and defense and pursue closer cooperation in this field. We commit to work towards an Administrative Arrangement for the United States with the European Defence Agency, with discussions, including on modalities and conditions for a closer and mutually beneficial cooperation in this framework, beginning as soon as possible. We reaffirm our unwavering support for robust NATO-EU cooperation and to the commitments outlined and principles enshrined in the 2016 and 2018 Joint Declarations. We will work jointly to raise the level of NATO-EU ambition in order to further strengthen this mutually reinforcing key strategic partnership.