Jobs & The Economy: Putting America Back to Work

“It is our generation’s task, to reignite the true engine of America’s economic growth —
a rising, thriving middle class,”

— President Barack Obama

Jobs & The Economy: Putting America Back to Work

Jobs News

  • Maryland Governor Martin O’Malley: 19,000 Reasons Why the President’s Plan is a Win

    Governor Martin O’Malley echoes the President’s call for Congress to pass the American Jobs Act, by explaining just how much the Presidents’ plan would benefit citizens of Maryland. The Governor agrees that passing the American Jobs Act is vital to growing our economy and creating jobs, will put more people back to work and put more money in the pockets of working Americans. In fact, in Maryland alone, an estimated 19,000 people would be put back to work and a typical household would receive a tax cut of approximately $1980.

    Watch Maryland Govenor Martin O'Malley, here

    Learn more about the impact of the American Jobs Act on Maryland and other states here.

    Jewel James is the Deputy Director of Intergovernmental Affairs

  • Entrepreneurs Applaud America Invents Act, Say It Will Create More Jobs

    Watch Patent Reform with the America Invents Act, here

    Last week, the President signed the America Invents Act, a much-needed reform that will speed up the patent process and enable entrepreneurs to turn an invention into a business three times faster than before. 

    Jessica Mathews, the CEO of Unchartered Play, says that the America Invents Act and the American Jobs Act are exactly what small business owners like her need to thrive. Mathews says that patent reform “will allow inventors and entrepreneurs and businesses to have greater likelihood that their patent will issue, that that patent will issue sooner, and all the incentive to go out there and create jobs to get their products to market.”

    Mathews invented the Soccket, a soccer ball that generates electricity as it's being kicked around. Her product is being used as a portable generator in developing countries short on energy supply.

    Louis Foreman is the listed inventor of 10 registered U.S. patents, and his firm, Enventis, is responsible for the development and filing of well over 400 more. Foreman has created nine successful start-ups and has been directly responsible for the creation of more than 20 others. Foreman says that the America Invents Act “will help bring both speed and certainty to the patent system.  It will allow inventors and entrepreneurs and businesses to have greater likelihood that their patent will issue, that that patent will issue sooner, and all the incentive to go out there and create jobs to get their products to market.”

  • President Obama: "It's Time to Build an Economy that Lasts"

    Watch President Obama at Brent Spence Bridge here.

    President Obama was in Cincinnati, Ohio today to talk about the urgent need to improve America’s infrastructure. The American Jobs Act includes a $50 billion investment in much needed infrastructure enhancements which will put people to work rebuilding America.

    The President was speaking in front of the Brent Spence Bridge, which connects Ohio with Kentucky, and has been classified as “functionally obsolete.” While it is safe to drive on, the Brent Spence wasn’t designed to accommodate today’s traffic, which can stretch for a mile. Cincinnati’s mayor has said it needs to be rebuilt. And so do substandard roads and bridges all across America. As the President said today, America can do better:

    We used to have the best infrastructure in the world here in America. We’re the country that built the Intercontinental Railroad, the Interstate Highway System. We built the Hoover Dam. We built the Grand Central Station. So how can we now sit back and let China build the best railroads?  And let Europe build the best highways?  And have Singapore build a nicer airport?  At a time when we've got millions of unemployed construction workers out there just ready to get on the job, ready to do the work to rebuilding America.  

    So, Cincinnati, we are better than that. We're smarter than that. And that’s why I sent Congress the American Jobs Act 10 days ago. This bill is not that complicated. It's a bill that would put people back to work rebuilding America -- repairing our roads, repairing our bridges, repairing our schools. It would lead to jobs for concrete workers like the ones here at Hilltop; jobs for construction workers and masons, carpenters, plumbers, electricians, architects, engineers, ironworkers -- put folks back to work. 

  • President Obama stands up for the American Jobs Act at the Ohio River's Brent Spence Bridge

    Ed. Note: Cross-posted from Fast Lane, the blog of the Secretary of Transportation.

    Two weeks ago, President Obama presented his American Jobs Act to a joint session of Congress and to the people of America.  Today, I was pleased to join him at the Brent Spence Bridge across the Ohio River, a functionally obsolete crossing on one of North America's busiest trucking routes. Replacing this bridge is exactly the kind of project that the American Jobs Act could support. 

    And the Brent Spence Bridge from Cincinnati, Ohio to Covington, Kentucky is just one example.  As the President said, "The same is true in cities and towns all across America.  It’s not safe.  It lengthens the commute to work.  It costs our businesses billions when they can’t ship parts or products as quickly as possible."

    President Barack Obama shakes hands with Construction Workers

    President Barack Obama shakes hands with construction workers after delivering remarks on the American Jobs Act at the Brent Spence Bridge, that spans the Ohio River between Cincinnati, Ohio and Covington, Ky., Sept. 22, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

    We were joined beside the bridge by ironworkers, laborers, and carpenters from the area, some of whom have been out of work for months on end.  They would be happy to get back on the job rebuilding the Brent Spence or any of the tens of thousands of bridges in America that need repair, replacement, or modernization.  If only Congress would pass the American Jobs Act.

  • Mayor of Cincinnati: Citizens Are "Very Excited" about American Jobs Act

    Watch the video of Cincinnati Mayor Mallory speaking on the American Jobs Act.

    President Obama is heading to Cincinnati, Ohio today to talk about the American Jobs Act -- a program the mayor of that city says will benefit Cincinnati. Mayor Mark Mallory said that he -- and the citizens of his city -- are "very excited" about the possibility of the Jobs Act because the President's plan will enable Cincinnati to keep firefighters and police officers on the job.p>

    Mallory specifically refers to the provisions in the Act that provide funds for infrastructure, and says Cincinnati's "very large, very old"  Brent Spence Bridge needs to be replaced.

     See how other mayors say the American Jobs Act will impact their cities:

    Mayor Dayne Walling of Flint, Michigan
    Mayor Antonio R. Villaraigosa of Los Angeles, California
    Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake of Baltimore, Maryland
    Mayor Michael Hancock of Denver, Colorado
    Mayor Greg Fischer of Louisville, Kentucky
    Mayor Sly James of Kansas City
    Mayor Phil Gordon of Phoenix, Arizona



  • Infographic:Rebuilding America's Transportation System through the American Jobs Act

    America is the country that built the transcontinental railroad and the interstate highway system; the Hoover Dam and Grand Central Station but today, we have roads, bridges, airports and railway lines all across the country that are in need of repair and updating. This afternoon, President Obama was in Cincinnati, Ohio where the Brent Spence Bridge, located on one of the busiest trucking routes in North America, is in such poor condition that it has been labeled functionally obsolete.

    The American Jobs Act, a set of ideas supported by both Democrats and Republicans, includes $50 billion for immediate investment in America's infrastructure. This investment not only improves Americans' daily lives by making commutes shorter and safer, but it puts construction workers across the country to work in much needed middle class jobs. 

    To better understand how the American Jobs Act will improve our nation's infrastructure and put Americans back to work, take a look at the infographic below.

    American Jobs Act Economy Infographic

  • Leaders from Minnesota Support the American Jobs Act

    Yesterday, local leaders gathered at the Minnesota State Capitol urging Congress to sign American Jobs Act. The President’s plan is simple: Put more people back to work and put more money in the pockets of working Americans. 

    The American Jobs Act would allocate $30 billion to updating and modernizing 35,000 public schools and community colleges across America, which would bring $275 million to Minnesota for updating K-12 schools and would also allocate almost $88 million for modernizing the state’s community colleges. Such investments are expected to create 3,600 jobs in Minnesota.

    Supporters from the BlueGreen Alliance, Education Minnesota, the Laborers’ International Union of North America (LIUNA), the Service Employees International Union (SEIU), the Minnesota Conservation Federation, and the Sheet Metal Workers’ International Association (SMWIA) spoke about the ways the American Jobs Act would benefit Minnesotans (pdf).

    “The American Jobs Act includes critical investments in modernizing and renovating our schools, and repairing our crumbling transportation systems, and it will create the jobs we need to maintain a competitive U.S. economy,” said Tarryl Clark, the National Co-Chair of the BlueGreen Alliance’s Jobs21! campaign. “People across the country all understand why this is important. Now we just need Congress to understand and pass the bill. It will get thousands of Minnesotans to work creating safer, healthier, more energy-efficient schools – schools that will be better for our students. And the bill will also create better roads, bridges, transit and other transportation systems for all of us.”

  • Vice President Biden Announces Boosts for Small Business in Ohio

    Watch Vice President Biden announce $20 billion in additional small business lending here.

    Small businesses across the country got a boost yesterday when Vice President Biden announced that 13 of the nation’s largest banks, in partnership with the Small Business Administration, have committed to increase small business lending by a combined $20 billion over the next three years.

    Speaking with SBA Administrator Karen Mills at Wrap Tite Inc. – a small packing and shipping material company in Solon, Ohio – the Vice President told the story of how a recent $1.5 million SBA-supported loan allowed Wrap Tite to purchase and renovate a new facility in Solon, as well as hire five new workers.  The new lending commitments announced today means more small businesses like Wrap Tite will have access to the capital they need to help grow the nation’s economy at the local level. As Vice President Biden said, "Small business men and women – who are the engine of economic growth in America – create two out of every three jobs in America."

    But, as the Vice President said in Ohio, the lending boost for small businesses is only part of the story, and we cannot stop there. Urging Congress to pass the American Jobs Act right away, he described two key ways the bill would help small businesses grow and hire in Ohio and across the country – by cutting their taxes and putting money back in their customer’s pockets:

  • Organizations Respond to President Obama's Plan for Economic Growth and Deficit Reduction

    On Monday, President Obama unveiled a plan for economic growth and deficit reduction (pdf) that details how to pay for the American Jobs Act while also paying down our debt over time. The plan, which is being sent to the Congressional Joint Committee on Deficit Reduction, offers a balanced approach to further reduce our nation’s deficit and get our fiscal house in order, based on the values of shared responsibility and shared sacrifice. Organizations are adding their voice to the conversation and we would love to hear from you.

    Please join the conversation by commenting on the White House Facebook wall, tweeting, or visiting the White House Office of Public Engagement website.

    Communications Workers of America (CWA), Larry Cohen, President:

    The administration’s plan is a positive step toward overall tax fairness and ensuring that the wealthiest Americans pay at least the same percentage of their earnings as working and middle class Americans. Rates for the wealthiest Americans have been cut 75 percent in the last 50 years.

    Service Employees International Union (SEIU), Mary Kay Henry, President:

    President Obama was right to propose the millionaire’s tax and an end to the Bush tax cuts as an important step in ending tax giveaways and closing corporate loopholes for those who haven’t done their part to turn our country around.

    National Partnership for Women & Families, Debra L. Ness, President:

    In these tough economic times, when enormous challenges and the hardest of choices are before us, establishing priorities is more important than ever. President Obama’s Plan for Economic Growth and Deficit Reduction is a move in the right direction. It can help begin to address America's economic problems while prioritizing the health and economic survival of older and low-income women and others who are more vulnerable than ever in this recession.

  • Weekly Address: Passing the American Jobs Act

    President Obama discusses the need for Congress to pass the American Jobs Act to put more people back to work, and more money back in the pockets of people who are working. Read the jobs bill.

    Transcript | Download mp4 | Download mp3

  • What You Missed: Open for Questions on the American Jobs Act

    On Thursday, September 15th, Jon Carson, Director of the Office of Public Engagement, and Brian Deese, Deputy Assistant to the President and Deputy Director of the National Economic Council, answered your questions from Facebook, Twitter, and on the President's American Jobs Act.

    Download the fact sheet to learn more about how the American Jobs Act will create opportunity for young Americans or find out more about the American Jobs Act.

    Download Video: mp4 (386MB) | mp3 (37MB)

    The questions below are paraphrased from the questions asked by participants during the live chat:


  • The American Jobs Act and Nonprofits

    During these tough economic times, nonprofit organizations, both faith-based and secular, are the front-line responders to communities in need.  From convening support groups and prayer services to providing child care, teaching job skills, and putting Americans back to work, these nonprofit and faith-based groups are supporting working families and individuals across the country.  

    President Obama recently announced a major new proposal called the American Jobs Act and sent legislation to Congress for action.  The American Jobs Act is all about getting Americans working and putting money back in the pockets of the American people, and nonprofit organizations are a key part of this bill. 

    The President recognizes that roughly one in twelve workers in the United States are employed in the nonprofit sector, which is why he made nonprofits – both faith-based and secular – a key part of this bill.  The Act will help all Americans by creating jobs now, sparking economic growth, and providing relief to millions of families.  Under the Act, all business and organizations – including nonprofits – can receive a tax credit through partnering with state entities when they hire long-term unemployed individuals or veterans.  The Act also includes an innovative entrepreneurship and wage protection program that will allow unemployed workers to receive unemployment insurance while they start new businesses – including nonprofit enterprises.  And employers won’t have to be as hesitant to hire new employees, because the American Jobs Act would cut the payroll tax in half for the first $5 million in wages, and temporarily eliminate employer payroll taxes on wages for new workers or raises for existing workers.  This is great news for many small business and nonprofit organizations.

  • American Jobs Act: Rebuilding the Economy the American Way

    In this morning’s Wall Street Journal, U.S. Chamber of Commerce president and CEO Tom Donahue raised concerns about the American Jobs Act, and I’d like to address them here.  

    The American Jobs Act includes a series of proposals that will give a boost to the economy and get Americans back to work -- the kinds of proposals that have been supported in a bipartisan way in the past. It’s a plan that not only puts money back in the pockets of middle class families, and puts workers back on the job, but also includes the kinds of proposals that economists agree will help business grow and hire.  And it’s a plan that rebuilds the economy in the American Way – based on fairness, balance and ensuring there is the same set of rules for everyone from Wall Street to Main Street.  

    Mr. Donahue questions whether the plan will create jobs.  The answer is simple: yes it will. Prominent, independent experts have said that the American Jobs Act could create 1.5 million or more jobs, increase growth by as much as two percentage points next year, and lower the unemployment rate.    

    And the American Jobs Act is fully paid for, not adding a dime to the deficit. We share Mr. Donahue’s concern about cutting spending and reducing our deficit. That’s why the President recently signed into law the Budget Control Act, which locked in almost a trillion dollars in cuts to discretionary spending. The American Jobs Act increases the Joint Committee’s deficit reduction target to cover the full cost of the job creation provisions. On Monday, the President will outline his vision for a balanced approach deficit reduction to the Joint Committee.   

    We also share the Chamber’s goals of investing in our nation’s infrastructure. A few weeks ago, the President was joined by representatives from the Chamber and the head of the AFL-CIO – groups that usually don’t agree on much – to come together and call on Congress to extend the surface transportation bill.  And that’s why the American Jobs Act makes the investments in our nation’s infrastructure that will put construction workers back to work and rebuild and modernize our nation.    

    We hear a lot from the Republican Leadership and the Chamber on the need to reduce burdensome regulations. We agree. The President ordered a government-wide review of existing federal regulations. So far, we’ve identified over 500 reforms, which will save billions of dollars over the next few years.The number of rules we’ve reviewed and issued in the first two years of this Administration is actually lower than the number of rules issued in the last two years of the Bush Administration. 

    But let’s be clear. The President will continue to protect the health, safety and well-being of American families – keeping their air and water clean, food and highways safe. He fought to ensure American families have the strongest consumer protections in history and protection against being discriminated against for having a preexisting condition. Overturning these reforms might be popular with Republican special interests and donors, but they aren’t good for American families and that’s why we will keep fighting to ensure they are implemented effectively. 

    We also agree with Mr. Donahue on the importance of passing three Free Trade Agreements that the President negotiated that will support tens of thousands of American jobs, supporting affordable clean energy and ensuring our visa system is fair.  

    The American Jobs Act contains ideas that are supported by both Democrats and Republicans that will put people back to work and put more money in the pockets of working Americans. It includes tax cuts. It keeps teachers in the classroom and cops on the beat. It rebuilds our roads and bridges. Bottom line, it puts Americans back to work right now.  

    We should all agree is that the economy needs a boost, and that we need to do more to get the American people back to work. We hope that Mr. Donahue and the businesses his group represents will join us in this important goal for our nation.

  • The America Invents Act: Turning Ideas into Jobs

    Watch President Obama sign the America Invents Act here.

    This morning, I had the great honor of watching President Obama sign the America Invents Act at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science & Technology in Alexandria, Virginia—a school named for the first official to issue U.S. patents.  This historic legislation will help American entrepreneurs and businesses get their inventions to the marketplace sooner so they can turn their ideas into new products and new jobs.  

    The America Invents Act was passed with President Obama’s strong leadership after nearly a decade of effort to reform the Nation’s outdated patent laws.  It will help companies and inventors avoid costly delays and unnecessary litigation, and let them focus instead on innovation and job creation.  Many key industries in which the United States leads, such as biotechnology, medical devices, telecommunications, the Internet, and advanced manufacturing, depend on a strong and healthy intellectual property system.  

    As President Obama explained in his 2011 State of the Union address:  “We know what it takes to compete for the jobs and industries of our time.  We need to out-innovate, out-educate, and out-build the rest of the world.”  

    On stage with President Obama was a bipartisan group of legislators who came together to pass the most significant reform of the Patent Act since 1836:  Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-VT); Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX); Rep. Bob Goodlatte (R-VA); Rep. Jim Moran (D-VA); and Rep. Mel Watt (D-NC). Today’s bill signing shows that strong bipartisan cooperation is possible. Congress can come together on behalf of the American economy and American innovation.  

    The newly-signed law has a number of important transformations that will build on reforms already underway under the leadership of the US Patent and Trademark Office's dynamic Director David Kappos. The law will give the USPTO the resources to significantly reduce patent application waiting times, building on the great strides the patent office has already made, including reducing its backlog by 75,000 during this Administration even as the number of filings per year has increased.  

    A few months ago, Austan Goolsbee (then Chairman of President Obama’s Council of Economic Advisers) created a video explaining why reducing the backlog will help get more ideas turned into companies and jobs. The USPTO will now be in a position to implement an innovative program to speed up the processing of the patents that are likely to create good jobs right away. Under the prioritized examination process, the USPTO will offer start-ups and growing companies an opportunity to have important patents reviewed in one-third the time with a new fast-track option that has a guaranteed 12-month turnaround.  

    The program builds on the Green Technology Pilot program that accelerates patent applications involving reduced greenhouse gas emissions and energy conservation — at no cost to the inventor. More than 2,407 petitions have been granted to green technology patent applicants since the pilot began in December 2009, and USPTO has issued a total of 470 patents under the program.  

    Excessive litigation has long plagued the patent system.  The America Invents Act will offer entrepreneurs new ways to avoid litigation regarding patent validity, without the expense of  going to court, and will also give the USPTO new tools and resources to improve patent quality. The new law also will harmonize the American patent process with the rest of the world to make it more efficient and predictable, and make it easier for entrepreneurs to simultaneously market products in the United States and for exporting abroad.  

    President Obama at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology

    President Barack Obama examines a robot created in the school’s prototyping and robotics senior research labs at Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology in Alexandria, Va., Sept. 16, 2011. (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

    At Thomas Jefferson High School, President Obama also announced some of the additional steps we’re taking to unleash the ingenuity of America’s entrepreneurs.  The National Institutes of Health will launch a new center that will help companies reduce the time and cost required to develop life-saving drugs, and is making it easier for startups to commercialize the biomedical inventions made by NIH and FDA researchers.  In addition, the Administration will develop a “bioeconomy blueprint” to create jobs and address key national challenges in health, energy, and agriculture.

    We also know that government cannot do this alone. That’s why 140 university presidents have answered the Administration’s call to action to move research breakthroughs from the lab to the marketplace.  We’re also announcing a new prize supported by the National Science Foundation and the Coulter Foundation to reward those universities that make the most progress on accelerating economic growth and job creation. 

    Now more than ever, the jobs of the future will spring from the inventions of today, which will be built on the foundation of a strong and balanced intellectual property system. As President Obama explained today, “We should be encouraging the entrepreneurial spirit wherever we find it.  We should be helping American companies compete and sell their products all over the world.  We should be making it easier and faster to turn new ideas into new businesses and new jobs.  And we should knock down any barriers that stand in the way.”  

    Have questions on the America Invents Act? Today, US Chief Technology Officer Aneesh Chopra will be answering your questions with USPTO Director David Kappos during an Open for Questions event on Join us live at 5:00 p.m. EDT on Friday, September 16th. Here's how it works and how you can participate:

  • Improving Economic Opportunities for Women

    On Wednesday, I had the honor of delivering a keynote address at the APEC “Women in the Economy” Summit in San Francisco. This group was comprised of delegates from economies around the pacific region: government officials, entrepreneurs, academics, corporate leaders, and NGOs. It was truly a privilege to be in front of such a prominent gathering of trailblazers, innovators, and leaders, all dedicated to the advancement of women.

    The Women and the Economy Summit is based around a simple, but profound, idea: when we improve opportunities for women, it will benefit our economy as a whole.

    If we are going to successfully grow our economy over both the short and long term, we must remove the barriers that still stand between women and economic success. That’s why President Obama has made empowering the world’s women and girls one of the important objectives of his Administration. I’m proud to be part of that effort, as the chair of the White House Council on Women and Girls.

  • Congress Moves Forward on FAA, Surface Transportation Extensions that Keep Jobs; Now Let's Talk about Creating Jobs

    Ed note: The following is cross-posted from the Department of Transportation blog

    Last night, the U.S. Senate followed the House and voted to extend authority for the Federal Aviation Administration and our nation's surface transportation programs to continue operating.  Passing this legislation keeps hundreds of thousands of men and women on the job.  For commuters, truck drivers, and air travelers, it will allow critical road, transit, and airport projects to move forward. 

    Our surface transportation law provides money to the states for thousands of transportation projects currently under construction around the country.   The hundreds of thousands of workers on road and transit project job sites across America will all breathe a little easier this weekend without the threat of a shutdown looming over them. And our valuable professionals at the FAA will be able to go about their business of modernizing our airports and researching new and better ways to run the best aviation system in the world.

  • West Wing Week: 9/16/11 or "Pass this Bill"

    Welcome to the West Wing Week, your guide to everything that's happening at 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. This week, the President  took his American Jobs Act to Richmond, Virginia, Columbus, Ohio, and Raleigh, North Carolina, traveled to all three memorial sites on the 10th anniversary of September 11th, and presented the Medal of Honor to former active duty Marine, Dakota Meyer, for his extraordinary actions in Afghanistan.

    That's September 9th to September 15th or "Pass This Bill!"

    Watch West Wing Week here.

  • Office Hours 9/15/11 or "Carrier pigeon, have you considered it?": Jason Furman Answers Your Questions on Twitter

    Continuing the White House "Office Hours" series, Jason Furman, Principal Deputy Director of the National Economic Council, answered your questions on the American Jobs Act on Twitter. You asked Jason about relief for 99ers, modernizing schools, paying for the Act, and much more. Check out the full Q&A below, or over on Storify.

    Be sure to follow @WHLive and @WhiteHouse on Twitter for more chances to engage.

    Jason Furman 9/15/2011 White House Office Hours

    Assistant to the President and Principal Deputy Director of the National Economic Council Jason Furman answers Twitter questions on the American Jobs Act during a session of White House Office Hours. September 15th, 2011.

  • What You Missed: Open for Questions on Youth and the American Jobs Act

    On Wednesday, September 14th, Ronnie Cho, Associate Director in the Office of Public Engagement, Michael Pyle, Special Assistant to the President, National Economic Council, and Roberto Rodriguez, Special Assistant to the President for Education Policy, answered your questions from Facebook, Twitter, and on how the American Jobs Act will impact young Americans.

    Download the fact sheet to learn more about how the American Jobs Act will create opportunity for young Americans or find out more about the American Jobs Act.

    Download Video: mp4 (364MB) | mp3 (45MB)

    The questions below are paraphrased from the questions asked by participants during the live chat:


  • Office Hours 9/14/11 or "Make Voices Heard": Stephanie Cutter Answers Your Questions on Twitter

    Today, Stephanie Cutter, Assistant to the President and Deputy Senior Advisor, answered your questions on the American Jobs Act during a session of White House Office Hours. See a transcript of the question and answer below, or over on Storify.

    If you didn't have a chance to join us live, there are more Office Hours focused on the American Jobs Act this week. Take a look at the schedule and be sure to follow @WHLive for more chances to engage.

    Stephanie Cutter 9.14.2011 Office Hours

    Assistant to the President and Deputy Senior Advisor Stephanie Cutter answers Twitter questions on the American Jobs Act during a session of White House Office Hours. September 14th, 2011 (Photo by Mori Rothman)