Japan-U.S. Joint Leaders’ Statement: Strengthening the Free and Open International Order
Today, Japan and the United States affirm a partnership that is stronger and deeper than at any time in its history. Guided by our shared values; anchored by our common commitment to democracy and the rule of law; inspired by the innovation and technological dynamism of our economies; and rooted in the deep people-to-people ties between our countries, the Japan-U.S relationship is the cornerstone of a free and open Indo-Pacific region.
It is in this spirit that Prime Minister of Japan KISHIDA Fumio welcomed Joseph R. Biden, Jr to Japan in his first visit as President of the United States. President Biden commended Prime Minister Kishida’s global leadership, including in the Japan-Australia-India-U.S. (Quad) Summit meeting.
As global partners, Japan and the United States affirm that the rules- based international order is indivisible; threats to international law and the free and fair economic order anywhere constitute a challenge to our values and interests everywhere. Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden shared the view that the greatest immediate challenge to this order is Russia’s brutal, unprovoked, and unjustified aggression against Ukraine. The two leaders condemned Russia’s actions, and called for Russia to be held accountable for its atrocities. They reaffirmed their support for Ukraine’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. The Prime Minister and the President underscored the importance of the international community’s unity, and expressed solidarity with the Ukrainian people in responding to Russia’s aggression through sanctions, including financial sanctions, export controls, and other steps, taken with like-minded countries to impose long-lasting economic costs on Russia.
The two leaders shared the view that the United Nations (U.N.) forms the foundation of the rules-based international order, grounded in shared principles and universal values articulated in the U.N. Charter, including respect for human rights. Both commended the unprecedented global unity demonstrated by U.N. Member States in condemning Russia’s aggression against Ukraine and suspending it from the U.N. Human Rights Council. Recognizing that the U.N. Security Council (UNSC) has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security on behalf of the Member States, the two leaders expressed deep concern about Russia’s irresponsible behavior as a Permanent Member and its abuse of the veto, particularly Russia’s attempt to shield itself from accountability for its aggression against another Member State. The two leaders expressed a determination to strengthen the United Nations and to encourage all Member States to recommit to the vision and values enshrined in the U.N. Charter. Both expressed the need to strengthen and modernize the multilateral system to better enable it to meet the challenges of the 21st century.
President Biden reiterated support for Japan’s permanent membership on a reformed Security Council, and for other countries who are important champions of multilateral cooperation and aspire to permanent seats. The two leaders also stressed the importance of strengthening coordination among democracies and like-minded partners to effectively address the challenges they face.
Advancing a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific”
Notwithstanding the ongoing crisis in Europe, the two leaders reaffirmed that the Indo-Pacific is a region of vital importance to global peace, security, and prosperity – and one that faces mounting strategic challenges to the rules-based international order. From this standpoint, Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden committed to action to advance their shared vision of a free and open Indo-Pacific region. Prime Minister Kishida welcomed the U.S. “Indo-Pacific Strategy.” President Biden emphasized unwavering U.S. commitment to the region, and underscored that his strategy will be matched with resources and steady implementation. The two leaders welcomed the increasingly vibrant, multilayered, and interconnected architecture in the region that supports our common vision; they affirmed the importance of ASEAN unity and centrality, and highlighted the important work of the Quad, AUKUS, and other multilateral fora. They also underscored the importance of cooperation with like-minded partners in other regions, such as Europe and Canada.
Regional Issues: Responding to an Increasingly Challenging Regional Security Environment
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden called on China to stand with the international community and unequivocally condemn Russia’s actions in Ukraine. They discussed continuing actions by China that are inconsistent with the international rules-based order, including coercion by economic and other means. Noting China’s ongoing increase in its nuclear capabilities, the two leaders requested China to contribute to arrangements that reduce nuclear risks, increase transparency, and advance nuclear disarmament. They also concurred to work together to strengthen deterrence to maintain peace and stability in the region. The two leaders strongly opposed any unilateral attempts to change the status quo in the East China Sea, and reiterated their strong opposition to China’s unlawful maritime claims, militarization of reclaimed features, and coercive activities in the South China Sea; they emphasized their firm commitment to the rule of law, including the freedom of navigation and overflight, consistent with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden stated that their basic positions on Taiwan remain unchanged, and reiterated the importance of peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait as an indispensable element in security and prosperity in the international community. They encouraged the peaceful resolution of cross-Strait issues. Both leaders voiced concern over the recent PRC-Solomon Islands security agreement, which was concluded in a non-transparent manner without addressing regional voices of concern. Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden also shared serious and ongoing concerns regarding developments in Hong Kong and human rights issues in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. They underscored the importance of candid communication with China, including at the leader level, and expressed the intent to work with China where possible on areas of common interest. Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden welcomed the inauguration of the new government of the Republic of Korea (ROK), and stressed the critical importance of close ties and cooperation among Japan, the United States, and the ROK, including security ties. The two leaders condemned North Korea’s advancing nuclear and missile development activities, including its recent ICBM launches. They reaffirmed their commitment to the complete denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula in accordance with UNSC resolutions, and urged North Korea to abide by its obligations under these resolutions. The two leaders reaffirmed U.S. commitment to the immediate resolution of the abductions issue. Both leaders expressed support for a calibrated diplomatic approach to North Korea, and called for its engagement in serious and sustained dialogue.
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden condemned the coup in Myanmar and the Myanmar military’s brutal attacks on civilians, and committed to continue taking action to press for the immediate cessation of violence, the release of all those who are wrongfully detained, unfettered countrywide humanitarian access, and a swift return to democracy.
The two leaders expressed concern about the increasing activities of Russian military forces around Japan, and committed to remain attentive to cooperation between China and Russia in military affairs.
The Japan-U.S. Alliance: Strengthening Deterrence and Response Capabilities
The two leaders renewed their commitment to strengthening the deterrence and response capabilities of the Alliance. Prime Minister Kishida expressed his resolve to examine all options necessary for national defense, including capabilities to counter missile threats. Prime Minister Kishida stated his determination to fundamentally reinforce Japan’s defense capabilities and secure substantial increase of its defense budget needed to effect it. President Biden strongly supported Prime Minister Kishida’s determination.
President Biden reiterated the U.S. commitment to the defense of Japan under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security, backed by the full range of capabilities, including nuclear; the leaders reaffirmed their intent to ensure full bilateral coordination through the Alliance Coordination Mechanism throughout every phase of a developing situation. The two leaders affirmed the critical importance of ensuring that U.S. extended deterrence remains credible and resilient. They reiterated the significance of enhancing bilateral discussions on extended deterrence, including through the Security Consultative Committee (SCC) and the Extended Deterrence Dialogue. The President reaffirmed that Article V of the Treaty applies to the Senkaku Islands, and the two leaders reiterated their opposition to any unilateral action that seeks to undermine Japan’s longstanding administration of the Senkaku Islands. The two leaders decided to accelerate cooperation in the cyber and space domains as well as in the field of emerging technologies. They shared the view that cyber security and information security form the foundation of close alliance cooperation, and will remain a continuous focus of our collaboration. The two leaders expressed their determination to continually modernize the Alliance, evolve bilateral roles and missions, and strengthen joint capabilities including by aligning strategies and prioritizing goals together.
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden affirmed their intent to deepen cooperation on joint training and capacity building in third countries, including through cooperation by the Japan and U.S. Coast Guards; the two leaders welcomed the signing of annexes to the Memorandum of Cooperation between the U.S. Coast Guard and the Japan Coast Guard.
The two leaders confirmed the steady implementation of the realignment of U.S. forces in Japan, including the construction of the Futenma Replacement Facility at Henoko as the only solution that avoids the continued use of MCAS Futenma, development of the Field Carrier Landing Practice Facility at Mageshima, and the relocation of U.S. Marine Corps units from Okinawa to Guam.
Achieving More Resilient, Sustainable and Inclusive Economic Growth
The two leaders discussed opportunities to further secure our shared prosperity. They exchanged perspectives on the importance of bold economic policies, including Prime Minister Kishida’s “new form of capitalism” and President Biden’s plan to build from the bottom up and the middle out, that promote technological advances while recognizing that the benefits of such progress must accrue to all communities, reduce inequality, and strengthen the middle-class in both nations. The two leaders also expressed their determination that Japan and the United States play an active role in addressing the challenges most salient for the global community – whether the emergence of new technologies, the impact of climate change, or transnational threats such as infectious disease.
The two leaders confirmed that Japan and the United States will collaborate in protecting and promoting critical technologies, including through the use of export controls, supporting their respective competitive advantages and ensuring supply chain resilience. They concurred on establishing a joint task force to explore the development of next generation semiconductors, based on “the Basic Principles on Semiconductor Cooperation” adopted in the Japan-U.S. Commercial and Industrial Partnership (JUCIP). President Biden noted the Japanese Diet’s approval of the Economic Security Promotion Bill, with its focus on supply chain resilience, essential infrastructure protection, technology development and the protection of patent applications. The two leaders concurred in exploring further cooperation to strengthen economic security.
The two leaders applauded the work to date under the Competitiveness and Resilience (CoRe) Partnership announced last year, and expressed their intention to hold the Japan-U.S. Economic Policy Consultative Committee (the Economic “2+2”) at the Ministerial level in July 2022.
Prime Minister Kishida expressed his support for President Biden’s Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF), and the two leaders welcomed the launch of discussions among IPEF partners toward future negotiations.
The two leaders recognized the importance of a multilateral trading system based on free and fair economic rules, and confirmed that they will work closely together, through international frameworks such as the G7, G20, WTO, and OECD, to address non-market policies and practices as well as economic coercion, that are incompatible with the multilateral trading system. They also welcomed the recent progress made on bilateral and multilateral trade issues as well as in advancing close cooperation in such areas as digital trade and combatting forced labor. Both leaders reaffirmed the moral and economic imperative of ending the use of forced labor and concurred in working together, recognizing the importance of enhancing predictability and fostering an enabling environment for businesses that respect human rights in their supply chains.
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden reaffirmed the importance of implementing the “G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment” and confirmed that they will further promote efforts to meet global infrastructure needs, in cooperation with the G7 and regional partners. They reiterated the importance of promoting debt sustainability and transparency under the G20 Common Framework. The two leaders also stressed the importance of fair and open lending practices. They reiterated the importance of internationally recognized rules and standards for major creditor countries.
The two leaders welcomed recent efforts by the international community to secure stable energy and food supplies, which are threatened by the impact of Russia’s aggression against Ukraine. Prime Minister Kishida emphasized the significant role U.S. Liquid Natural Gas plays in alleviating global supply constraints and welcomed investment by U.S. industry to increase oil and natural gas production. The two leaders also welcomed the establishment of Japan-U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Security Initiative (CEESI) to achieve both energy security and net-zero emissions. They confirmed their commitment to work bilaterally and multilaterally on energy and food security, and to cooperate with international organizations such as the International Energy Agency to promote clean energy and mitigate the impact of the disruption in energy supplies, especially on developing countries. Building on the G7 countries’ commitment to reduce dependence on Russian energy, the two leaders shared their intention to explore an initiative to provide Asian partners with support for strengthening their energy security.
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden welcomed Japan’s commitment to take all available measures to double demand for bioethanol, including for sustainable aviation fuel and on-road fuel, by 2030 to reduce dependence on imported petroleum.
They also shared the need to strengthen resilient and diverse supply chains of critical minerals and to elevate environmental, social, and governance standards in the sector.
The two leaders celebrated the deep tradition of space cooperation between Japan and the United States. They announced progress in collaboration on the Artemis program, including reaffirming our shared intention to include a Japanese astronaut on Gateway and on human and robotic lunar surface missions. Both leaders committed to conclude negotiations on the Framework Agreement and the Implementing Arrangement for Gateway cooperation in 2022.
Global Challenges: Realizing Human Security in a New Era
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden confirmed that they will continue cooperating to overcome the COVID-19 crisis and strengthen health security to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future pandemics, including through frameworks such as the Quad, the COVID-19 Global Action Plan, and the G20 Finance and Health fora. The two leaders confirmed support through COVAX, as well as for “last one mile support” programs to increase equitable access to vaccines, while working together on therapeutics, testing, and strengthening health systems. They also confirmed the need to strengthen the global health architecture, including by reforming the WHO, establishing a new pandemic preparedness and global health security fund at the World Bank, strengthening coordination arrangements between finance and health authorities, with a view to achieving universal health coverage.
The two leaders welcomed further progress in Japan-U.S. joint research on cancer cures and treatment, and welcomed the renewal of the Memoranda of Understanding enabling this cooperation. President Biden highlighted the role of the National Cancer Center of Japan in promoting international collaborations under the Cancer Moonshot program since 2017, and underscored that U.S. commitment to growing that initiative.
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden recognized the existential threat of the climate crisis, and committed to making the 2020s the decisive decade for climate action. They affirmed their intent to meet today’s energy demands while working toward long-term energy security by implementing ambitious 2030 nationally determined contributions under the Paris Agreement and 2050 net zero emission goals. In service of these goals, the two leaders affirmed their intent to enhance cooperation under the Japan US Climate Partnership.
The two leaders recognized the importance of nuclear energy as a critical and reliable source of carbon-free electricity and process heat. To this end, they committed to greater nuclear energy collaboration and to accelerating the development and global deployment of advanced and small modular reactors by jointly using export promotion and capacity building tools. The two leaders also concurred to work together to create more resilient nuclear supply chains, including uranium fuel, for both existing and new reactors.
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden reaffirmed their intent to work together toward a world without nuclear weapons. In particular, they affirmed their commitment to strengthen the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons as the cornerstone of the international nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament regime. Prime Minister Kishida noted the importance of advancing realistic measures on nuclear disarmament, while addressing security challenges, and President Biden agreed. The two leaders welcomed recent progress in cooperation on nuclear security, including the removal of all highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel from the University of Tokyo research reactor “Yayoi” and other Japanese research reactors to the United States, furthering their mutual goal of minimizing worldwide stocks of HEU.
Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden, recognizing that the pandemic has made promoting gender equity more important than ever, concurred that ensuring that all people, regardless of gender identity, can achieve their full potential is both a moral and strategic imperative, critical to every aspect of society and the economy. The two leaders also emphasized the importance of preventing and addressing gender-based violence, including conflict-related sexual violence.
People-to-People Exchange: Creating Diverse and Inclusive Networks that Support a “Free and Open Indo-Pacific”
The two leaders underscored the importance of mutual exchange and collaboration, to foster the next generation of leaders that will advance a “free and open Indo-Pacific.” They concurred to resume and boost various exchanges, including through study abroad programs; the JET Programme; the Kakehashi Project and the Tomodachi Initiative; and fellowships and collaborative projects among researchers and practitioners such as the Mansfield Fellowship Program and those of the Japan Foundation. Prime Minister Kishida expressed his intention to boost exchanges among professionals and practitioners in areas such as advanced technologies, climate change and disaster management and implement Kakehashi with an emphasis on Okinawa, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The two leaders also paid tribute to the history, contributions and cultural heritage of Japanese Americans and concurred to engage next generation Japanese American leaders in the future Japan-U.S. cooperation. The two leaders also reaffirmed the role of the U.S.-Japan Conference on Cultural and Educational Interchange in people-to-people exchange.
Toward Building a Future-Oriented Japan-U.S. Relationship
As the two largest democratic economies, Japan and the United States have a unique obligation to support democratic values, norms, and principles, and to advance a vision for the future in which peace, prosperity, and freedom are ensured. Prime Minister Kishida and President Biden together embraced this responsibility. They affirmed the importance of building a coalition of likeminded partners to advance this shared vision, noting that Japan will chair the G7 and the United States will host APEC in 2023.